The Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach, together referred to as the San Pedro Bay Port Complex, are an important source of regional economic activity in southern California. However, the port complex is also the single largest fixed source of air pollution in the region. In response to pressure from regulatory agencies and local communities, the two ports developed a Clean Air Action Plan in 2006.
The research team assembled three case studies of programs implemented under the Clean Air Action Plan: the Technology Advancement Program, voluntary Vessel Speed Reduction programs, and the Clean Trucks Program. An additional case study featured a proposed private-sector infrastructure project: the Southern California International Gateway project. Each case study describes the program, stakeholders involved, barriers to implementation, and outcomes. These cases highlight the institutional challenges the ports face while working with a multitude of stakeholders and regulatory bodies to address both environmental sustainability and economic competitiveness.