User Perceptions of Safety and Security: Toward a Framework for Transition to Electric, Shared, and Automated Vehicles

Three revolutions (3R) is the confluence of vehicle electrification, automation, and sharing. Each alters the model of petroleum-fueled, human-piloted, and privately-owned and operated vehicles for personal mobility in ways that raises questions of safety and security of the system, product, producer, road, and user. This review focuses on actual and potential users and other road-users' (e.g., pedestrians and cyclists) perceptions of 3R’s constituent technologies. The role of user perceptions of safety and security are reviewed to create an initial framework to evaluate how they affect who will initially use a 3R transportation system for personal mobility and how safety and security will have to be addressed to foster a sustained transition. This white paper will be a resource for 3R use, provision, and governance, and will offer an overarching framework and thus organize past work that, typically, focuses on a single technology or on one dimension of safety or security.


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