The most commonly stated function of eco-driving has been increased on-road fuel economy. Other functions, such as emissions reductions and safety, have been substituted or conflated with fuel economy. There is no consensus on what behaviors constitute eco-driving: definitions differ by functions, forms, and contexts. To aid in systematizing eco-driving classifications, the authors propose a framework grounded in behavioral theory. Because definitions vary, so too do estimates of effects. Still, the literature presents a compelling case that drivers can increase their vehicles’ fuel economy compared to established vehicle ratings. Equally clear, there is much yet to be done to ensure that drivers capture and sustain these improvements. Most eco-driving interventions have focused on driving behaviors. They have largely been limited to training and feedback, with tentative conclusions that feedback is more effective. The behavioral framework suggested here highlights the need for intervention designs specific to the function, form, and context of eco-driving behaviors.