Researchers assessed the engine-out emissions of an ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a neat hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) from a light-duty diesel truck equipped with common rail direct injection. The vehicle was tested at least twice on each fuel using the LA-92 drive cycle and at steady-state conditions at 30 mph and 50 mph at different loads. Results showed reductions in the engine-out total hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and particulate emissions with HVO. The reductions in soot mass, solid particle number, and particulate matter (PM) mass emissions with HVO were due to the absence of aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds, as well as sulfur species, which are known precursors of soot formation. Volumetric fuel economy, calculated based on the carbon balance method, did not show statistically significant differences between the fuels. Steady-state testing at 30 mph and 50 mph revealed reductions in engine-out THC emissions with HVO, but mixed results for CO emissions. Steady-state testing with HVO showed higher NOx and soot mass emissions for the higher load points compared to ULSD.